International Congress on the Didactics of the English Language <p>The scientific journal International Congress on the Didactics of the English Language, from the Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, Esmeraldas Campus is a journal in digital format. Its foundation is in 2016 and is planned for an irregular frequency, as a product of each congress on the Didactics of the English Language.The journal is targeted to the scientific community, especially English teachers and students.</p><p>Each of its issues addresses core issues within the scientific field, which allows for a better understanding of the phenomena and problems occurring in our classrooms in the 21st century, as well as new discoveries, advances or Scientific news, within a broad thematic coverage.</p> en-US International Congress on the Didactics of the English Language <p>Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, Esmeraldas Campus.</p><p>The scientific journals which signed the agreements from the Encounters of Latin-American Journals are authorized to reproduce, in part or completely, the articles published here, with only the mention to the source clearly pointed out. Other interested parties will be able to reproduce the contents previous authorization of the editor- in- chief of the journal.</p><p>The articles and papers published are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the thought of our Editorial Board.</p> Interpretations of Task-Based Language Teaching following an Inset Course: A Case Study <p>In 2010, a new curricular reform of English as a foreign language, based on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) and the Communicative Language Teaching Approach, was established in Ecuador. Task-based language teaching, which aligned with previous approaches, can be applied to reach the new curricular objectives. In this regard, between 2011 and 2012, a number of public high school English teachers in Cuenca attended a one-year in-service training program (INSET). This program was based on the use of communicative strategies and the task-based language teaching (TBLT) approach for teaching English as a foreign language. The main objective of this qualitative research study, conducted from 2014 to 2015, was to determine whether the participants applied communicative strategies within TBLT after the training program. Classroom observations and semi-structured interviews were administered to twelve out of the twenty-three participants. Although the results of the study showed an increase in the use of communicative strategies by the participants after the training program, only a small number of teachers used the TBLT approach appropriately. Others employed the presentation-practice-production (PPP) approach. Nevertheless, some teachers who used PPP perceived that they were, actually, using the TBLT approach. </p><p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>:</em> Teacher training; English teachers; communicative strategies; Task-Based Language Teaching</p> Ana M. Calle Calle María D. Calle Calle Gerardo E. Heras Urgilés María León Vélez Copyright (c) 2017 Ana M. Calle Calle, María D. Calle Calle, Gerardo E. Heras Urgilés, María León Vélez 2017-06-12 2017-06-12 2 1 Common Written English Grammatical Mistakes in the Students from the Applied Linguistics School at PUCE, Esmeraldas Campus <p>To determine the most common written English grammatical mistakes in the students from the Applied Linguistics School at PUCESE, a prospective quanti-qualitative investigation was carried out using the methods of analysis and synthesis and hermeneutic, with a survey which contained open and closed questions so as to know specific information and students’ opinions, and a test applied to all the students from the Applied Linguistics School, where they had to write a short essay about their expectations in the referred school. The results showed that all the students agreed that grammar must be taught through all the semesters so that they can learn this linguistic component of English appropriately. The most common written English grammatical mistakes are related to the use of the definite article, conjugation of verbs in the third person singular, use of prepositions, conjugations of verbs in the past, use of modal verbs and use of the passive voice. It is concluded that grammar should be taught with more frequency during the studies. Besides, teachers need a didactic material with activities and methodological orientations to work with grammar in the classroom.</p><p><em> </em></p><p><strong><em>Key words</em></strong>: grammar; written mistakes; English; students; Applied Linguistics</p> Boris P. López Estupiñán Copyright (c) 2017 Boris P. López Estupiñán 2017-06-12 2017-06-12 2 1 The use of songs in the English Language Teaching-Learning Process of the 6th Level Basic Education Students at “Francés” Private Educational Institution in Esmeraldas <p>In order to analyze how songs may contribute to the improvement of the English language teaching-learning process in the sixth level Basic Education Students at “Francés” Private Educational Institution in Esmeraldas, a descriptive investigation was carried out by using the deduction and induction methods, the analysis and synthesis and the hermeneutic method; besides, some techniques such as observation and surveys were applied to a population of 30 students of the sixth level of Basic Education at “Francés” Private Educational Institution, whose ages varied from nine to ten years old; also, the participation of the English teacher of these students was required. The results revealed that the students enjoy listening to songs during their English lessons; they feel relaxed and motivated to learn English after singing and listening to a song. The English teacher uses songs in her lessons, however, there is a lack of knowledge about how to apply the songs in the class. Therefore, the teacher did not use neither a methodology for using the song in the class nor a song related to the vocabulary of the unit. This research coincided with a number of investigations done in relation with the use of the Ludic Methodology, making emphasis on the use of games, drama, and songs, but not with the use of songs as a methodology to teach the contents of the textbook.</p><p><strong><em> </em></strong></p><p><strong><em>Key words</em></strong><strong>:</strong> songs; Ludic Methodology; English language teaching-learning process; children </p> Carla A. Andrade Sánchez Copyright (c) 2017 Carla A. Andrade Sánchez 2017-06-12 2017-06-12 2 1 Best Practices in Inclusive Education: Inclusiveness in the English Teaching Classroom <p>Inclusive education is an important concept for the twenty first century teacher as the number of students with special needs continues to increase nowadays and require integration into the broader classroom. Who are these students with “special needs”? Why is it so important for the teacher to identify them? How can this concept contribute to better classroom management that also complies with the core curriculum learning environment in which equal opportunities are guaranteed to all? A critical element for language teachers relates to general strategies for classroom management. According to Smith, (1990), the number one reason why teachers leave the profession is students’ abusive behavior. Other research carried out by Elan and Gallup, in 1996, demonstrated that about 15% of the participants in a survey believe behavioral problems in public schools is a key problem, only after drugs. Therefore, it is critical to implement appropriate and effective strategies that would contribute to a positive teaching/learning environment, be inclusive and still comply with the curriculum objectives.</p><p> </p><p><strong><em>Key words</em></strong>: Inclusive education; rights; language teaching; language learning difficulties; competences.</p> Charlie Egas Orbe Copyright (c) 2017 Charlie Egas Orbe 2017-06-12 2017-06-12 2 1 A study of the Pragmatics of English in the Applied Linguistics School at PUCESE <p>An analysis of the main difficulties related to pragmatics of the English language was done in the Applied Linguistics School (ALS) at the Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador in Esmeraldas (PUCESE). A descriptive and qualitative investigation was carried out by using the deduction and induction methods; besides, some techniques such as observation, survey, and test were applied to a population of 43 students of third, sixth, and eight levels from the ALS were English is taught as a foreign language (EFL). The results revealed that the linguistic component investigated, pragmatics, is not taken into consideration at all, in the English language teaching-learning process. Learners, throughout the techniques employed, corroborated their lack of pragmatic competences of the English language when producing it. Several misinterpretations were noticeable in the test operated (Figure 3). This research coincides with a number of investigations done related to pragmatics. Those provided techniques and some materials to let learners be aware of the linguistic component studied. In this manner, a glossary was made for teachers and students of the ALS to be included as a didactic material to facilitate the English language teaching-learning process and to avoid possible misinterpretations. <strong></strong></p><p><strong><em>Key words</em></strong>:<strong> </strong>pragmatics; English language teaching; Applied Linguistics; pragmatic competences; glossary</p> Marlene E. Rengifo Obando Copyright (c) 2017 Marlene E. Rengifo Obando 2017-06-12 2017-06-12 2 1 Teaching English to Refugees in a Multilevel Classroom <p>In order to assess the teaching of English to refugees in a multilevel classroom, a pedagogical investigation was carried out with the mixed paradigm: qualitative and quantitative, with a sample of six students who formed part of a family of refugees, from whom two were illiterate adults, two were adolescents and two were children. The adolescents and children had different educational levels, the first two were Senior High School students, one child was a Junior High School student, and the other one was in the first level of Basic Education. They were taught English for six hours a week in the Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador in Esmeraldas, Ecuador, as part of a project of connection with the community. The analytic-synthetic and hermeneutic methods were used, with the technique of observation. A quasi-experiment was done with the use of a pre-test and a post-test. The results showed that at the beginning of the experience the students were not able to use English in basic communicative functions or with basic knowledge about the alphabet and numbers; but after using strategies concerning the classroom arrangement in pairs and groups and the use of a combination of methods for language teaching, the adult students were able to have some interaction in English with the younger students. One of the children (a girl), who was in Junior High School, participated actively and influenced the learning process of the adults and of the younger child, who had never studied English before. It is concluded that the English-language teaching-learning process to refugees in a multilevel classroom demands creativity on the part of the teacher, motivation, a combination of methodologies and needs assessment in order to find out the contents the students need to learn, which is in relation to the language of survival. </p><p><strong><em>Key words</em></strong>: teaching English; refugees; multilevel classroom; pedagogical investigation</p> Haydeé Ramírez Lozada Marjorie K. Perlaza Rodríguez Juleise A. Escobar Boris P. López Estupiñán Copyright (c) 2017 Haydeé Ramírez Lozada, Marjorie K. Perlaza Rodríguez, Juleise A. Escobar, Boris P. López Estupiñán 2017-06-12 2017-06-12 2 1 Can Sentiment in our Words be Quantified? An Introduction to Lingmotif, a Sentiment Analysis Software Tool and its Educational Application <p>In this paper, we present a concise introduction to Sentiment Analysis. We introduce a multilingual lexicon-based SA application, Lingmotif, developed by the Tecnolengua team at the Universidad de Málaga (Spain). Lingmotif is a lexicon-based, multi-platform desktop application for Sentiment Analysis. This software detects sentiment-laden words and multi-word expressions and returns a detailed analysis of its sentiment. In this paper, we provide a description of the tool’s interface along with a brief proposal for its application in education and English Language Teaching.</p><p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>:</em> Sentiment analysis; opinion mining; Natural Language Processing; education; discourse analysis; digital humanities</p> Javier Fernández-Cruz Copyright (c) 2017 Javier Fernández-Cruz 2017-06-12 2017-06-12 2 1 The listening skill. Its influence upon the English language learning process in the students from the Applied Linguistics School at PUCESE <p>A descriptive quantitative-qualitative investigation was carried out to describe the influence that<strong> </strong>the listening skill has upon the English language learning process in the students<strong> </strong>from the Applied Linguistics School at PUCESE, using the deductive and inductive methods. A bibliographical research about the listening skill and the English language learning process was done, and the techniques used were the survey and observation. The population was formed by 43 students and the sample by 40. The results showed that the listening skill is not as fully worked as it needs to be, and that the students consider that with its development and practice, they can get better results with the other skills, like reading, writing and speaking, teachers are regularly implementing the listening skill in their lessons, and the students are interested in using it, also the students agreed that teachers sometimes use listening materials for teaching, improving the English language and engaging them to work actively in the lesson, but they need more practice. In conclusion, the general results of this investigation coincided with the results of previous investigations, related to this topic, which supported the application and use of listening materials for improving students’ skills and the English language knowledge. The author of this investigation also designed a set of exercises, so that teachers can use them in their lessons for engaging students in listening activities and making them work actively with tasks.</p><p><strong><em>Key words</em></strong><strong>: </strong>listening skill; communicative competence; linguistic components</p> Juleise A. Escobar Suárez Copyright (c) 2017 Juleise A. Escobar Suárez 2017-06-12 2017-06-12 2 1 The Influence of Spanish on the Pronunciation of the English Phonemes /t/ and /d/ in Students of the Eighth Level of the International Commerce Career at PUCESE <p>The main goal of this investigation is to analyze the influence of Spanish on the pronunciation of the English phonemes /t/ and /d/ in students of the eighth level of the International Commerce studies at PUCESE during the first semester of 2016. The students from this level have shown some problems when pronouncing two of the most common English phonemes, mentioned above. For this reason, the author decided to carry out this investigation in order to find out the possible causes which are affecting those pronunciations, by comparing the way in which English and Spanish /t/ and /d/ phonemes are realized, identifying the specific problems presented by the students in the pronunciation of them in English, and adapting different techniques that teachers could apply in the classroom in order to improve the pronunciation of them. This thesis first makes a review of previous studies, done in the same field, to be contrasted later. In a second stage, seven students from the eighth level of the International Commerce studies who were registered in the eighth level of General English were observed during two weeks and following that they were interviewed. At the end of those two weeks the results showed that the biggest problem students have when pronouncing those two phonemes is when they are located in the final position of a word, due to the influence of their mother tongue. The author recommends General English teachers to implement an explicit phonetic instruction technique to help students improve this pronunciation problem.</p><p><strong><em>Key words</em></strong>: pronunciation; mother tongue; influence; phonetics </p> Karla M. Olivo Tello Copyright (c) 2017 Karla M. Olivo Tello 2017-06-12 2017-06-12 2 1 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Senior High School Students from Margarita Cortés Educational Institution in Esmeraldas, Ecuador <p>The present study had as main purpose to determine which types of motivation (Extrinsic or Intrinsic) the students from the First Year of Baccalaureate of Accounting and Informatics specialties, from Margarita Cortés institution, experienced when they learned English as a foreign language. To achieve this purpose, a survey based on the Attitude and Motivation test battery from Gardner was adapted and applied to 58 participants from the mentioned institution. The results of the study showed that the students experienced an extrinsic motivation to learn this language. Also, it must be emphasized that even though the type of motivation most experienced was extrinsic, the intrinsic also obtained a high percentage.</p><p> </p><strong><em>Key Words</em></strong>: motivation; extrinsic; intrinsic; Baccalaureate students María F. Saltos Intriago Copyright (c) 2017 María F. Saltos Intriago 2017-06-12 2017-06-12 2 1 The Influence of Large-Size Classes on English Teachers’ Performance <p>This research was aimed to analyze the influence of large class sizes on teachers’ performance in different Educational Institutions in Esmeraldas. A descriptive, qualitative and quantitative investigation was carried out by using the deductive and inductive methods. The participants of this study were female and male full-time English teachers from public, fisco-misional and private Institutions, older than 30 years. They were observed for two weeks and then a survey of ten questions was conducted. The results showed that in classes with more than 35 students, the teaching performance decreases as teachers lack the appropriate knowledge, class time and the suitable conditions to teach to that number of students. It also revealed that teachers’ success in managing large classes is not particularly affected by large number of students but for students’ disinterest in learning the language. Besides, teachers in large classes have a growing tendency of using more Spanish than English. This research coincides with a number of investigations done related to large classes and teaching English as a Foreign Language.</p><p><strong><em>Key words: </em></strong>Large classes; English teacher’s performance; collaborative work <em></em></p> Maricela M. Ante Boboy Copyright (c) 2017 Maricela M. Ante Boboy 2017-06-12 2017-06-12 2 1 Third-Level Nursing Students Engaged in an ESP Didactic Unit <p>In order to assess the teaching of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) in third - level nursing students, a pedagogical experience was carried out at the Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador in Esmeraldas, during the first semester of 2016, for which a group of 30 students was observed during a lesson - planned didactic unit entitled “The body”. <strong> </strong>The methods used were analysis and syntheses. The students used their text books to practice with some communicative exercises which were already planned, devoted to the ESP teaching-learning process. The results revealed that the students were a lot more motivated to participate in classes, their language level during the lessons improved as they were engaged in active work during the whole unit, integrating the four skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing in the teaching-learning process of ESP. At the end the students were able to write paragraphs about the different diseases, also they could summarize the most relevant aspects of the different illnesses orally, and they could interpret texts and videos related to different diseases.</p><p><strong><em>Key words</em></strong>: English for Specific Purposes; Nursing students; pedagogical experience</p> Rebeca Naranjo Corría Ingrid Grijalva Arriaga Copyright (c) 2017 Rebeca Naranjo Corría, Ingrid Grijalva Arriaga 2017-06-12 2017-06-12 2 1 Do Corpora Benefit the Level of Vocabulary of 10th Year of Basic Education Students? Case Study <p>The low level in English classes leads to the need of looking for alternatives of new techniques and methodologies that help to solve this issue. The present case study aims at investigating the benefits that corpus (or its plural corpora) can provide to school classes in Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Through a period of one month, paper material based on information taken from a corpus was applied in a 10th level class at a fiscomisional institution in Esmeraldas. This is an experimental type of study that used mainly quantitative methods for the analysis of class documents and questionnaires, in order to explore students’ response and perceptions to corpus. Also, a pre-test and post-test will be carried out in two classes, one in which the corpus will be applied (treatment group) and the other one which will continue with its regular learning process (control group), in order to know the level of students regarding vocabulary pre- and post- treatment period. Later, through a comparison between the results of both groups and the analysis of a survey, be able to state the benefits that the use of corpus could bring to the English teaching field. The findings indicate that, despite its short time of implementation, the use of corpus in classes improved the level of the student’s vocabulary.</p><strong><em>Key Words</em></strong>: corpus; corpora; case study; English teaching Sindy J. Castillo Jaen Copyright (c) 2017 Sindy J. Castillo Jaen 2017-06-12 2017-06-12 2 1